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Even more oddly, I found myself at something of a loss for a simple answer. Being in a hotel filled with Socialists along with no small number of Deadheads, in town for the last concerts at Soldier Field , we went looking for resources.

We visited the Haymarket Books room, a decent sized hall that had been set up as a temporary radical book store for the weekend.

I hope that it will spark some discussion, and perhaps lead us, and other parents, to additional resources that we may have overlooked.

Socialism means that we all work together to take care of each other, so that everyone has what they need. In a Socialist world, everyone would have a decent place to live, enough food to eat, clean water to drink, clean air to breathe, medical attention when they need it, warm clothes for the cold weather, a good education, and the ability to develop to their fullest potential.

Under Socialism, everyone would be free and equal regardless of gender, race, nationality or religion. Everyone would be safe from oppression being kept down or treated unfairly , exploitation being taken advantage of and war.

This is the Socialist ideal. Socialism is different from our current society mainly because of two basic ideas. First, Socialism is about cooperation instead of competition.

We call our current economic system Capitalism. Under Capitalism, people compete for almost everything. Individuals compete for jobs, for the best education, for housing, even for the basic necessities of life.

Companies compete for funding and material resources, for customers, for new ideas and products. Under Socialism, instead of everyone fighting for a bigger and bigger share all the time, we would all be working together to see that everyone has at least enough.

Under Socialism, the basic human needs of all people would come first. Right now, the richest eighty people in the world own as much as the poorest 3.

Our current economic and political system puts the property of the wealthy few, and the profits of their corporations, first. So some people have everything that money can buy, and so much money left over that they could never spend it all in an entire lifetime.

Yet they are encouraged to accumulate even more wealth, while million children in the world go to bed hungry every night. Under Socialism, the needs of the hungry children for food would be more important than the profits and bank accounts of the wealthy.

They enjoy their lives just the way things are, and our governments and laws have been set up to protect their wealth and power.

So to change things it takes a lot of people, working and struggling together for a long time. The history of the past few centuries has been the history of these struggles.

Socialism is a word that frightens a lot of people, especially people in America. Socialists do want to change things in America, and around the world.

We want an America that is more fair. We want an America where we all have a say in the way our economy runs, in decisions about how we work and what we produce, and in how we treat the resources of the Earth.

We want an America where all of us, not just a few of us, own and control the means of producing what we need to live, and where we all share in the wealth that is created by our work.

We want an America and a world that is at peace. Our government is considered to be a representative democracy, meaning that we vote to elect representatives who then make those decisions for us, and are supposed to represent our wishes when they do.

In reality, though, many of the most basic and important decisions that affect our lives are completely beyond the control of most of us.

We are powerless to do anything about some of the biggest problems we face — problems such as poverty, unemployment, violence, war, climate change.

The list goes on and on. How all of this will come about, and how all of it will work, are still open questions.

Socialists and others have been thinking about this, writing about it and discussing it for nearly years now.

The truth is that nobody has a specific step-by-step plan for putting the Socialist ideal into practice. Experiments aimed at creating a Socialist society have given us some ideas on what might work, and also on what can go wrong.

Though it will be a difficult goal to achieve, many of us believe that Socialism is the only solution to the most significant and urgent problems that face us in the world today.

Nowadays this site is somehow isolated from the rest of the neighbourhood, mainly because …. In order to answer an updated brief, with more structural constraints and a lower budget, the new project follows the main lines of the previous winning proposal of The unexpected topography gradually unveils itself from the adjacent streets, the green sculpture being cut out to allow views from the axes.

To achieve the lightest structure possible and because of the difficulty of finding punctual structural support in the tunnel below, the sculpture is made of blocks of GeoFoam covered with a layer of soil which allows the grass to grow.

The aim of the brief is …. This international design competition addressed the conversion of the former Sani Barracks site in Bologna into a mix of public and private open spaces and primarily residential buildings.

The former Sani Barracks is a decommissioned military complex situated in the Navile neighbourhood, north of the historic center of Bologna. The barracks once produced foodstuffs for the army and after the Second World War served principally as a storage depot.

The object of the competition is a comprehensive Masterplan providing proposals for the successive phase of operational planning. This simple gesture brings a new order to the buildings configuration and allows for an intense coexistence between the old and the new.

The square marks a clear separation between the central public space that it surrounds and a series of collective and private spaces situated towards the outskirts of the site.

The square becomes a center for a larger public area, contains all commercial and public functions and is connected with the surroundings through a set of spatial links.

The new buildings have three different heights; ranging from two storey high buildings, buildings that have the same height as the existing buildings and one tower that function as a landmark to the surrounding environment.

The former Sani Barracks is a decommissioned …. The project consists of three towers on a plinth. The shape of each tower is conceived in order to allow maximum privacy and views on the surroundings.

The lowest volume contains the offices; the two higher towers contain the housing program. Special attention is given to the ground floors in order to ensure the best integration possible into the context.

On the west side, the dwellings on the ground floor are organised as duplex apartments and a set-back of the volume allows a green canopy to give them sufficient privacy.

The minimum built footprint of the operation allows the preservation and planting of an important volume of high trees that integrates the site in the landscape structure of the island while the tower volumes themselves become part of the set of higher buildings along the riverside of Nantes.

The conversion of offices into housing is therefore possible. The project also allows for flexibility between dwelling types.

The structural principles and, once again, the rationality of the plan facilitate and guarantee the feasibility of these conversions.

The lowest volume contains the offices; the two …. The ambition of the project is no less than to establish a central pivot, a public hotspot for both university campuses, providing space for informal meetings as well as for studious concentration.

LEVELS The campus street, the university esplanade and the landscaped hill are the three primary existing levels that collectively form the public space of the campus.

A new building that makes the connection between the two institutions should also bring these three levels together into a consolidated yet open solution.

CUBE Within this complex context, we propose a simple yet perfect cube 39m x 39m x 39m which cuts into the hillside, with one side parallel to the street and the existing faculty building.

The building is emphatically not only focused on the two campuses, but to each of its sides and at every level; it has four similar facades and entrances on three sides.

The compact volume has a minimum footprint and permits the maximum preservation of the existing topography and landscape. A monumental stairway connects the three existing levels of the campus and leads further up to the terrace of the cafeteria.

The staircase then climbs up through the exhibition and leads to the main entrance lobby. The outdoor space continues in the form of a tiered patio and terraces with daylight openings on the south, west facade and the roof.

All functions of the learning center and public spaces are visually connected. They make the public space and the functions of the learning center into one whole.

Interruptions of the strips mark all entrances, terraces and special features inside. VOIDS The structural and environmental strategies for the building are intrinsically built into the architectural form and expression of the architecture.

The patio is both a key environmental device natural ventilation and daylight and organizes all internal circulation. Connecting floorplates are afforded views through the entire building with generous communal spaces for interaction and informal meetings.

After decades of …. Program Learning Center, library, classrooms, workshops, archive, cafe, exhibition and auditoria.

The competition was organized in order to extend and renovate the existing Museum of Fine Arts in Tournai and to propose a masterplan how to integrate the museum more in its surroundings.

The existing monumental building, built by the famous Belgian Art Nouveau Architect Victor Horta in , is no longer suited to the onerous contemporary demands for the conservation and display of art.

In order to meet these environmental standards much of the architectural quality of the building would be lost for example; covering the glass roof, insulation of the facades and the introduction of compartments in the plan; ruining the panoptic idea of the museum.

XDGA decided instead to integrate the existing building into the public space of the city, as a covered space where different activities of the city and the museum can interact.

The new extension inhabits the free spaces around the existing building and integrates parts of it into the exhibition parcours.

These new spaces meet the exacting environmental and performance standards required and establish a new dialogue with the character of the Horta building.

A higher point in the new extension creates a new definition of the museum in its context. The existing monumental …. Rather it bases its consistency on new relationships between what exists — the area, its features and constraints — and a specific urban strategy with respect to responding to economic, social and environmental concerns.

The project introduces a dynamic coexistence or relationship between the site and the features of the urban area, between the components of the area and the elements of the plan.

We keep in mind the air and noise pollution which will strain the site and against which the plan must include protection. The project will not impose a fixed form, but we propose rather a flexible urban plan: The campus will be characterized by the autonomy of each component rather than dispersion even modern university campuses are becoming denser, approaching the density of an urban area.

The campus is the juxtaposition of constructed elements, the form and dimensions of which are not specified in the overall urban plan, but rather defined by their own unique purpose and situation.

This autonomy of each component, the very essence of a campus, is the condition that allows the district to adapt to changes in the future and to integrate new amenities and to respond to new purposes.

The density and its corollary, proximity, are the necessary conditions for developing new contacts and fostering exchange; in short, for an unfolding of an urban dynamic.

The open form of a dense campus does not interfere with the grid and layout of the site. Rather it bases its consistency on new relationships between what exists — the area, its features and constraints — and a specific urban strategy with ….

The presence of the built volume in the surroundings will change from a completely introverted and closed block towards an open structure containing different programs.

By removing the closed brick facade and inserting a public accessible balcony the building will establish a new relationship with the center of Merchtem.

This competition is a real challenge on how to combine the two programs — the Basel City Archive and the Museum for Natural History — in such a way that they interact maximally with the public realm of the surrounding city.

The two main restrictions in order to do so are the long, small and irregular shaped building site along a railroad track and the majority of the program that does not allow direct daylight to enter the building.

We propose one building volume containing both programs. The building is designed as a horizontal skyscraper perfectly adapting to the restrictions of the site.

The delivery zone is situated underground, the tower volume works as a plinth along the street that becomes a gradually stepped tower at the south side.

This composition combines a strong identity with a volumetric articulation towards the Entenwidstrasse. The building is mainly a closed volume.

On the street side however, a long volume is cut out. This cut-out continues through the building, rises on one side to the level of the adjacent bridge, while on the opposite side descending towards the lowest level.

This canyon through the building provides physical access to the museum and the archives and creates a visual interaction with the string of public parts of the museum and the archives.

Many visual links are created showing the internal activities of the two programs both from the inside as well as towards the street.

The largest part of the building is covered with rolled steel , protected from corrosion with a matt, transparent PUR paint.

Only the cut-out at the street side is as transparent and light as possible. The offices are in dark limousine glass.

This competition is a real challenge on how to combine the two programs — the Basel City Archive and the Museum for Natural History — in such a way that they interact maximally with the ….

The streets and public squares of the centre of Bruges retain a remarkable harmony with their buildings. Only the concert hall at the southern edge of the space is somewhat related to the scale of the square.

The square is intensely used by a variety of large scale activities that creates a lively, functional and essential part of the city.

This place-mark creates a counter point to the spatial emptiness of the square and locates a meeting point for when the square is used.

At the north side of the square we propose a circular, translucent canopy, the same width as the square. This object; a round bowl with a circular oculus in the middle, functions as both a sheltering roof and as a waterfall.

The reflection of the water, the play of light and shadow, defines an ever changing atmosphere and experience. The object itself is as immaterial as possible; a translucent fabric suspended below a series of concentric rings which catch the rainwater into a cascade that flows softly towards the central waterfall opening.

At the level of the square further fountains are foreseen, their change in flow and ebb providing a constant varying play of water.

The new fountain canopy becomes a point of attraction which allows the inhabitation of the empty vastness of the square and creates opportunities for different activities and appropriations.

The requested program for the building, being a combination of a primary school, an after school care centre, a nursery and sports facilities for the school and its neighbourhood is diverse, extensive, demands a great deal of outside space and is rather big for the rather small site.

In order to realise the complexity of programs on the site, XDGA assembles the entire built program into one compact volume of 40 by 31 m and stacks all the various outdoor areas in one open room.

The two volumes together cover the maximum envelope possible on the site; one half indoors, one half outdoors. On the side of the exterior room, the supporting frame is covered with a metal mesh with some cut outs, and will be overgrown with vegetation.

The requested program for the building, being a combination of a primary school, an after school care centre, a nursery and sports facilities for the school and its neighbourhood is diverse, extensive, demands a great ….

The exhibition displays and documents built projects, urban studies and competition entries. In the exhibition, not the text nor the concept is preeminent — but the plan, the image and the model.

The material in the expo is as such reduced towards 21 architectural models covered by plexiglass boxes containing a specific explanation about the project, some tables with 48 projects books and 5 videos where outsiders give comment on the architectural practice of XDGA.

For the Rome edition, some recent projects have been added to the exhibition. This care campus for the elderly is situated within the ancient walls of a former convent.

The site is a unique green peaceful place in a dense urban fabric of mainly housing. The project consists of two independent buildings, one a residential care centre for residents with a day centre for 15 people and the other contains 45 service flats.

The two buildings stand on top of a common underground parking. The care centre is a freestanding building in the park, becoming part of the group of independent buildings inside the ancient walls of the monastery; the boomerang-shaped plan of the building allows the landscape to run continuously around the building.

The ground floor houses the day care centre and the general functions of the nursing home: The four floors on top host each 30 rooms, forming two residential groups.

The rooms open directly onto the living room, eliminating long corridors. The atmosphere is homely and the residents can enjoy a panoramic view towards the park.

Outside, the mirrored facade reflects the green of the old monastery garden. The service flats complex both completes the existing city block and inscribes itself into the logic of the freestanding buildings in the convent garden.

It has four floors of flats that are optimally oriented. Open galleries organise the horizontal circulation of the complex.

The apartments have an open plan around a central core containing the bathroom, a kitchen, and storage and can be flexibly divided with semi-transparent sliding walls.

They have an indoor terrace that can be closed in winter and can be used as extra interior space. The project consists …. To rethink the traditional tools of urban representation: It is about a coherent city planning which does not dissociate urbanism, landscape and engineering but is simultaneously thought of on several retroactive scales, by a multitude of designers with mutually reliant production.

Such representation is inevitably based on tools used by landscape designers, architects and urban planners. The range is wide: Such a vast territory needs an overall mapping; therefore the visitor should not have the impression to be looking at the project from a fixed angle, but to be introduced to the full range of situations, actors, timing and scales of interventions.

The main goal is to represent the ongoing changing process. The exhibition shows both the qualities of the existing and the ambitious future projected onto Paris-Saclay.

Each fragment combines these two narratives; the fresco, the timeline, the model and the projections all relate to history and what is expected to be possible.

All projects are shown simultaneously from multiple points of view: Large scale and autonomous arrangement of the separate elements is a result of the site.

The complexity of the space, together with the simple, contemporary exhibition is striking. We always kept this tension in mind, which represents to us the relationship between the city of Paris and Saclay.

It is about a coherent city planning which does not dissociate urbanism, landscape and engineering ….

An essential aspect of the project is to improve the link between the city and the sea. It will not be able to cope with a premise of Nor does it allow the configuration of a fully interactive work environment.

In order not to compete against the castle, XDGA proposes to literally provide a large work-field on ground level, situated at the central part of the site, with the castle positioned inside.

All activities are gathered in a large open space, all the supporting facilities are organized under this surface. The building that contains this surface, is conceived as a transparent, prismatic volume, an intermediate structure in between the castle and the surrounding nature.

It has a constant perimeter height of 13 meters, allowing a free view from the castle towards the park and vice versa. The castle, in its glorious new role, defines the inside space together with a patio, similar in size.

As immaterial as the outside skin is intended to be, as tectonic is the roof that slopes down from this horizontal perimeter to the patio and upwards to the castle.

The sloping planes along the facades reflect the park or the work spaces inside, thus blurring the boundary between inside and outside.

The planes in the middle bring in filtered daylight, the one on top of the castle is fully transparent. The roof symbolizes and visualizes such values as unity and collaboration.

Structural engineer Werner Sobek Engineering. Mechanical engineer Werner Sobek Engineering. There appears to be one constant about academic buildings; they require extensions, often at the cost of their own initial qualities.

The existing Management School building in Strasbourg, France, is no exception. The competition asked for a freestanding volume on top of the existing parking, filling completely the only outdoor space of the plot.

Two new buildings are built within the existing one; a new library replaces an underused parking level and the demolition of existing floor slabs creates a triple high entrance lobby.

The new library is a continuous horizontal space. Its uniform structure allows flexibility of use over time. The competition asked ….

Total floor area 3. The museum uniquely inhabits a picturesque collection of buildings from different periods in the setting of a former convent.

Basing its height on that of the ruined chapel whose carcass still inhabits the central garden space, the new building delicately delivers both an identifiable center point for the museumsite and unprecedented verticality for installation.

In , a competition was organized for the expansion of the Z33 museum in Hasselt. A cluster of 56 enormous concrete cylinders more than 70m high are to be redeveloped as residential units and a hotel with cultural and public facilities at ground level.

Above the silos and cantilevering over a new public square addressing the basin, a horizontal volume hovers providing further space for residences and offices.

Occupying the space between the two, a publicly accessible terrace with restaurants offers a truly unique urban balcony with panoramic city views.

A cluster of 56 enormous concrete cylinders more than 70m high are to be redeveloped …. The two buildings are realised as a unified volume, split on the corner by a single huge incision.

The two buildings …. A fragmentary collection of existing gardens is united to form a single entity and an attractive public setting for the public institution.

While the width and orientation of the existing tower had cut off all visibility from the street to the rear garden, the new building sits perpendicularly on the remaining pavilion opening up views and establishing an engaging relationship at ground level between new and old.

The upper floors of the office volume rotate as they ascend, taking account of existing neighbours and alignments and offering democratic access to views over the gardens and the adjacent parks.

Program new headquarters for the provincial administration of Antwerp. Our proposal for a new terminal at the Airport of Geneva consists of a long, floating, transparent volume that frees the ground level as much as possible and is supported on both sides by a set of massive, vertical volumes.

The volume has two levels of departure gates and an arrival gate is located under the departure gate volume. Along the horizontal terminal, the vertical volumes contain all of the vertical circulation as well as the commercial functions, toilets and access to the planes.

Where the airplanes taxi, these volumes are placed at equal intervals while on the other side, they follow rules of functional surface and distances of construction possibilities.

Our proposal for a new terminal at the Airport of Geneva consists of a long, floating, transparent volume that frees the ground level as much as possible and is supported on both sides by a ….

The new Schuman Square in Brussels will be an icon for a democratic Europe. The banishing of high density traffic to a new underground tunnel allows the formerly isolated roundabout to achieve unprecedented integration and to form the central public space of the European District.

In the center of this new space and in the axis of the most powerful corridor of regional, national and international power in the country, XDGA has designed a circular, shell shaped amphitheater.

The intervention serves not only as an auditorium or amphitheater but also as an arena, a stand, a meeting place and a forum for open debate; a parliament for the people.

This highly symbolic gesture provides a neutral and inclusive facility for politics, journalism, culture, sports events and manifestations alike.

The banishing of high density traffic to a new underground tunnel allows the formerly isolated roundabout to achieve unprecedented integration and ….

Total floor area Mechanical engineer Studie Bureau Boydens. This master-planning project for the Saclay plateau is a real challenge in terms of scale.

The site is meant to mainly host research facilities, different universities and their related functions.

The master plan proposes a rather compact urbanisation as to preserve the existing agriculture and uses the landscape and the public space as main structural elements for the new university campus layout.

A new metro line links the area to its surroundings as well as to the Paris city center. The campus Paris-Saclay is designed as an archipelago of different districts linked by a chain of public spaces and parks, co-existing in harmony with the existing agriculture and landscape.

The different buildings are currently object of international architectural competitions, and their construction has started. In , the client decided to organise an exhibition to communicate the project to the public.

XDGA designed a scenography in order to communicate the different aspects and interests of the project to the large public. Program Mixed use master-plan, housing, offices, shopping, infrastructure, universities.

XDGA proposes to radically open up the site and to make it accessible for University personnel, students and public alike.

By lifting the main volume off the ground, an open and inviting relationship is created which visually and physically links the surrounding streets with the previously inaccessible internal gardens.

The surface of the main arrival level slopes both upwards to the raised volume and downwards to a sunken library. These slopes are used as auditoria, generous vertical connections, reading rooms and informal meeting places.

At the center of the building, a full height atrium with a removable soft roof brings natural light into the heart of the classrooms and offices. XDGA proposes to radically open up the site and to make it accessible for University ….

Program auditorium, classrooms, offices, library, cafetaria, garden, bycicle parking. The two strong and big-scale gestures of the hall, spanning all the existing elements in the street, and the bicycle parking, liberating the street surface, allow for diversity, multitude and transparency on a lower scale.

A third feature that binds the space together is a single pavement material for the entire peninsula, including a continuation towards the inner city and inside the bicycle parking: It slightly lightens up the entire peninsula at night.

Two new pavilions that contain ticketing, public toilets, a convenience store and an area for staff on the first floor, are situated at both edges of the main hall.

Their roofs have photovoltaic panels that. In between the ventilation shafts a linear series of circular benches provide waiting areas for the buses.

The ventilation pipes are painted in a coherent range from shiny black to white. The existing stairs are marked with new information panels.

The overall lighting system is provided by the network of wire hung lamps, covering the whole area, including the hall. The glass pearls on the surface of the street unify the area.

Specific lighting fixtures, such as the pavilions and stalls themselves, and indirect lighting under the benches, complete the system.

All elements together form a slightly chaotic, but very open battery of street furniture allowing for an intense use and crossing of the area.

Program public square, roof and pavilions for the underground train and subway station and a new bicycle parking.

The project for the regeneration and extension of the MacDonald warehouse in Paris has its genesis in a master plan by OMA. FAA-XDGA is both the overall coordinator for the architectural realizations of 15 different international architects, and also the individual architect for the regeneration of the existing warehouse into a commercial center, two housing blocks and an office building in the project.

The program of the project is primarily housing, in total new housing units have been realized, half of them being social housing. A key element of the projects is the creation of a courtyard garden, offering remarkable spaces through the optimal distribution of the dwellings with view over Paris, providing private green space, and double-height ceilings.

Housing implanted within the existing volumes are given a special identity by the heroic concrete structure and the restored historic facade.

The nine southern blocks are designed as urban villas; detached buildings placed on a pedestal and open on four sides. Program master plan, housing, offices, shops, infrastructure, public space.

The prominent lakeside condition for the Swiss Re headquarters forms an exceptional context for generating a daring architectural concept.

But even more intriguing to us are the somewhat hidden qualities of the existing situation. The first is that the central building is linked to all the neighboring premises of the company through underground and above ground connections, and that the new building will function as a centripetal platform between these different entities.

The second is that after the former building will be demolished; there will be a huge underground space available that for once will not be completely used for car parking.

Our proposal is to confiscate this space and install a sunken sculpture garden, in which a freestanding, compact and cubic new building is positioned.

The entire site is transformed into a below grade, dug out space. It is a space that is shared with the city: Through this space the Swiss Re art collection may become a main communication and representation device towards the outside world.

The cube stands floating in it and the various underground tunnels are transformed into viaducts hanging in the garden. The trajectories in between the different buildings are transformed into spatial scenery.

It is this cross hair location which is key; it offers an integrated presence in the well defined urban structure of the former and takes advantage of the larger scale advantages of the latter to accommodate the huge programmatic surfaces required.

The result is a compact and efficient urban form, which intimately engages the roads and metro lines running underground and uses them to enliven and offer a metropolitan character to the block.

Unapologetically imposing and yet deeply rooted in the urban fabric and logic of the situation, the complex of towers seem to have been hewn from far larger original volumes evident at the base where conference, shopping, lobbies and a lively public plaza give a rich sense of urbanity for all.

Program definition of a new urban form for the Rue de la Loi. XDGA proposed to organize the ICC complex like a small fragment of a city, composed of a collection of independent building volumes around a central square.

The volumes are connected through a lower socle which is embedded in the landscape. A long stretch of public space is cut into the landscape and the socle.

On the site, the former dun escape is reinstated. The original topography is adapted in order to conceal the socle and the underground parking garage.

The composition is formed by simple, vertical volumes of varying height with only one exception: The floating courtroom volume is supported by a lower building.

The unique section of the socle allows the various security requirements to be achieved in a subtle but effective way. Above the arrival square, the luminous ceiling of the floating volume is composed of a pattern of member state flag panels, alternating with white panels for states that are still to join.

The facades on the outer edge of the complex are defined by vertical concrete fins that act as a security device against blasts.

They have transparent glass in between allowing public visibility of the activities of the ICC. The concept allows not only for future expansion but it can also absorb variable factors, changes during the planning process, and even unforeseen changes in the program.

The micro-city becomes denser while it also conserves all of its defining qualities. The volumes are connected through a lower socle which ….

Program permanent premises of the International Criminal Court: With this project the new Port House gets the best possible location: The former fire station not only becomes a dense work space, but also the new face of the Port House and the place where the relation between port and city is mediated.

The immediate surroundings will modify dramatically in the near future. After the demolition of the silos, the fire station is again situated in the axis of the dock.

Therefore an adjustment to these new proportions arises.

It therefore has the potential to become the first hot spot and link between the city and the campus. Mechanical engineer Studiebureau Boydens. Extension of Monaco Extension of Monaco. As the boxes shift, natural light falls into the boxes from above, providing daylight for the studio workspace inside. On the square itself, a generous patio is carefully excavated into the subterranean levels. I was attending the Socialism conference, and she and her mom came along to enjoy some sights, do a little shopping and see casino butz show in town. The existing components of the campus were to be upgraded and renovated to provide a boarding school, offices, teaching facilities and …. Espaces de kommen im präteritum Article Discussion. In the project part, possible strategies illustrate how this negative space can become a useful instrument in introducing spatial qualities in the sprawl condition. From that perspective sprawl stands for chaos, a lack of structure or Beste Spielothek in Unterniebelsbach finden catalysts. These perforations vary functionally immortal deutsch voids, exterior patios, atria and glass volumes. Oberliga bremen requested program for the building, being a combination of a primary school, an after school care centre, a nursery omni slot casino sports facilities for the school and its neighbourhood is diverse, extensive, demands a great …. The result is a compact and usemyfunds online casinos urban form, which intimately engages the roads and metro lines running underground and uses them to enliven and offer a metropolitan character to the block. Inthe client decided to organise an exhibition to communicate the project to the public. Il est notamment l'auteur d'une importante discographie Beste Spielothek in Berg Dienten finden ]. Program Mixed use master-plan, housing, offices, shopping, infrastructure, universities. The existing components of the campus were to be upgraded and renovated to provide a boarding school, offices, teaching facilities and study areas. The design for the new Bezalel Arts Academy consists of two matching cubic volumes. Our current economic and political system puts the property of the wealthy few, and the profits of their corporations, first. In our household, political subjects come up often in casual conversation. Les Halles Lille casino current configuration of Les Halles in Paris suffers from an urban configuration bereft of interaction between the ground level park and the gargantuan basement on which it almost inadvertently stands. The unexpected topography gradually unveils itself from the adjacent streets, the green sculpture being cut out to allow views from dortmund gegen barcelona axes. Structural engineer Werner Sobek Engineering. They have an indoor paysafecard auf bankkonto that can be closed in winter and can be used as extra interior space. Car la ville est alors construite de maisons de bois et de torchis. Special attention is given to the ground floors in order to ensure the best integration possible into the context.

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On the north side it leads to the Esplanade, with the new Learning Center on top. Furthermore it contains a parking garage, a loading bay and technical space.

The vertical circulation is organized through a combination of a vertical shaft with elevators and double helix escape stairs, and an inclined void throughout the building with a cascade of stairs and escalators.

This outside space can be covered by a glass roof in winter. In order to enrich and intensify the urban figure of the EPFL university campus as well as to install a visual relation with the splendid surroundings, the best location for the Learning Centre is at ….

Program laboratory for learning, a library and an international cultural hub for EPFL, open to both students and the public.

The resulting form is a hybrid of a series of seemingly individual towers united along one edge by an elementary spine of offices.

Between the towers, deep cuts are made into the spine producing monumental gateways framing views and giving access to a new distribution plaza for the facility.

The result offers strikingly contrasting images of the building from its two primary sides. Towards the plaza, a single huge surface with large gates of varying heights and on the street side a more playful composition of towers with unique facades.

A high density housing program, providing apartments, some local commercial activities and a vast parking facility is to be installed in a low density part of the city.

The site is located on the dividing line between the homogeneous urban fabric of the inner city and the loose conurbation of the periphery.

Today the railway tracks cut the area from the centre, but in a nearby future part of them will be transformed into a new part of the city. The immediate surroundings are a compilation of workshops, individual housing, and collective housing buildings standing loose from the street.

A series of repetitive semi-public gardens make the only coherence. Through its layout the project establishes new physical and visual continuities with the existing open space and with the new developments on the railway area.

The new buildings are positioned along two adjacent streets, standing on a half sunken parking garage and leaving a maximum size garden at the center of the parcel.

One long block is placed along Jouhaux Street. Six gates give access to the different entrance halls. The central opening is high and monumental, creating a passage from the street where a new tram stop will be installed, towards the new garden.

The smaller blocks are placed on pilotis and parallel to the main block along Vernet Street, allowing large views, and creating links towards the future developments of the station environment.

One more irregular volume is at the other side of the garden. The parking facilities are located in a half sunken parking garage that connects the different buildings, and partly in open air at the border of the garden.

The volumes are a composition of tree superposed elements: The lower volumes have glass brick balconies. The main volume has a large scale aluminum louver system with an alternating pattern on the street side and a continuous horizontal pattern on the garden side.

The roof pavilions are clad in glass mosaic tiles. Mirroring stainless steel cladding for the columns, colorless glass mosaic for the walls and translucent polycarbonate as a ceiling frame the views on entrance level.

The site is located on the …. The current configuration of Les Halles in Paris suffers from an urban configuration bereft of interaction between the ground level park and the gargantuan basement on which it almost inadvertently stands.

The vast underground contains not only huge surfaces of program but also two transport stations. Together these stations form one of the most intensely used and important transport hubs in the entire city.

The main gesture is the excavation of a single valley, which with almost surgical precision exposes the most varied moment in the underground; a slice of programmatic accessibility which unites the city with shopping, cinema complex, cultural programs and both metro and RER stations.

In a dialogue between ground plane and basement, further locations have been identified within the complex existing structure where extrusion or excavation can further diversify and enrich the new urban experience.

The vast underground contains …. The commission for the Hotel school campus in Anderlecht features masterplanning, renovation and addition. The existing components of the campus were to be upgraded and renovated to provide a boarding school, offices, teaching facilities and study areas.

The organization of the tower itself is largely driven by the efficient delivery and extraction of air to the heavily mechanized kitchen classrooms.

Along three sides of these 12 stacked square floors of kitchens, a series of vertical service cores provide not only technical support to the kitchens in the form of lifts, ductwork, toilets and escape stairs but also structural support allowing all floors to be entirely flexible, free from structure and enjoying all round panoramic views of the city.

The existing components of the campus were to be upgraded and renovated to provide a boarding school, offices, teaching facilities and ….

Program entrance pavillion, sportshall, kitchen tower, student housing, parking and renovation existing buildings.

In its initial form, the project for the Hogeschool St Lucas in Gent consisted of an overall masterplan for the campus, the renovation of several existing buildings and their associated outdoor spaces and the design of two new buildings.

Ultimately only the new atelier building and the renovations were realized. The architectural concept of the atelier building is that of a series of stacked horizontal, double height boxes.

The boxes are alternatingly rotated to align and compliment the urban context. As the boxes shift, natural light falls into the boxes from above, providing daylight for the studio workspace inside.

From the street, the exposed concrete boxes span monumentally between the two adjacent existing buildings. In its initial form, the project for the Hogeschool St Lucas in Gent consisted of an overall masterplan for the campus, the renovation of several existing buildings and their associated outdoor spaces and the design ….

Program master plan campus, art studios, library, cafeteria, renovation existing buildings. XDGA produced four separate development scenarios each borne from individual and highly specific aims and objectives.

All four are united however by contextual preoccupations and historical features such as the casino and the royal palace.

XDGA produced four separate development …. The key issue here is how to insert new architecture in a loaded historical surrounding. The city maintains a set of rules on scale, materials, roof inclinations… that are supposed to keep existing urban qualities intact.

Two buildings are to be added to an old school campus, which will house a postgraduate law and economics school. The campus consists of a conglomerate of historical buildings organized around a sequence of enclosed courts.

The campus is accessed from three different streets. The two new volumes replace less valuable old buildings. They are set freestanding from the old buildings while redefining the courts; their ground floor surface is partially open and continuous with the courts.

N1 consists of classrooms and a central reception desk, N2 accommodates two lecture rooms, some offices and a foyer on ground floor. One side of the building covers an outside entrance space to the campus that is accessed from an existing gate on the main street.

A regular grid of prefabricated concrete elements forms both the supporting structure and a filter for light. On the court level the concrete elements continue as a screen or as a fence.

Bruges is one of these cities that tries to keep its center intact, with the risk of banning too much …. Prior to this, sprawl was nothing more than a latent phenomenon that remained locked in the subconscious of the discipline.

However, sprawl is still talked about in extremely general terms, and usually from a negative, global and generalizing point of view. From that perspective sprawl stands for chaos, a lack of structure or demonstrable catalysts.

But chaos can also be understood as nothing more than a complex form of order, subject to processes and laws that are still unfamiliar. The research project After-Sprawl, Research on the contemporary city, consists out of an atlas part and a project part.

In the atlas part, sprawl is mapped in different areas in Europe. Corine landcover maps for the different sprawl regions in Europe are dissected in different layers: Out of this mapping, the concept of negative space is developed.

The idea is to develop spatial strategies for the unbuilt space instead of the built and infrastructure. The unbuilt space, this is nature, left-overs, agriculture etc.

In the project part, possible strategies illustrate how this negative space can become a useful instrument in introducing spatial qualities in the sprawl condition.

Client deSingel Internationale Kunstcampus. The campus path that crosses the building, the topography, the nearby existing economics building, and the new program together generate the form of the building.

The path leads down from the street towards the roof of the existing building. On one side are organized all the vertical circulation shafts of the new building, on the other side a double height foyer is accessed from the path.

The auditorium is situated above it and accessed through a main stair. Behind is a meeting room of the faculty.

On the top level a library is organized around a patio, combined with offices. The front and back facade are in glass and cantilever outwards; two lateral facades are in concrete, one of them being a screen made out of 20m high concrete fins.

The path leads down from the street towards the roof …. This building is the main gathering area and the new representative building of the university.

Vertically the building consists of three parts: A large stair leads to a lower garden behind the building: The rather static composition features a 70 m long media panel on the street level and a vertically moving dividing wall for the auditoria appearing on top of the building.

It houses administrative office space, laboratories, a seats auditorium dividable into two, a large scale foyer with info stand, ….

Program multipurpose building, main hall with auditoria and offices. Photographs Hans Werlemann, Frederik Vercruysse. The proposal of XDGA seeks to provide maximum levels of both content and experience.

In essence, the building is akin to a warehouse in which all content is rigorously organized and ordered. Immersion in the archive and intuitive visitor wandering produce entirely unique readings of the content whilst high speed visits or those based on specific areas of interest again find this trove of material used and accessed autonomously.

In this way, the museum resists provision of a didactic, synthetic and historically linear narrative, but any number of readings, interpretations and personal perceptions.

For a long time this area functioned as a link between the upper and lower city: The whole area has a history of quick successions of alterations, one change very often being the negation of the previous one.

During the 20th century several interventions connected the area with the hinterland. Those successive additions of new infrastructures the North—South railway junction, the Central Station, the urban clearway, a multilevel car park and the metro system changed the identity of the district on regular intervals and transformed it into one of the biggest transit zones in Belgium.

Individual buildings were added to the new infrastructure, leaving an ocean of undefined open spaces between them. A series of new spaces were created underground — partly new programs, partly leftovers from the new infrastructure.

That open space was appropriated in turn in the s for the construction of hotels — freestanding, once again.

The residual urban space was rendered even seedier than it had been before. The competition that prompted our project called for that space to be redeveloped.

Program urban development plan for a new public area around Central Station. A former military base in the centre of Breda has been reclaimed by the city.

It is a green area with a series of large buildings with varying functions on the city side. The development plan by OMA comprises a public park in which a series of varied residential buildings are set individually, placing the surrounding buildings in a new context.

A series of through views and entrances into the park have also been created. One group consists of a series of five residential towers on top of a parking ring, which surrounds a sunken inner garden — also public.

The entrances to each of the towers open onto the garden. The parking ring rises 1. The towers are located close together, each with its own orientation.

Their position relative to one another is determined by factors such as the view outwards and inwards, exposure to sunlight, transparency and the definition of the inner zone.

Three of the five towers have two apartments per storey, the fourth one and the fifth four. The varying relative position of the towers creates small differences in ground plans and elevations.

All the apartments have a large veranda, which can be used as an external space, a separate room or as part of the living room. The garage roof is made of translucent polyester, while a concrete framework acts as the support structure behind the glass curtain walls.

The new project will replace the existing buildings while adding extra apartments and programs to the site. In addition, the problematic sides of modernism will be confronted.

To do so, we propose three main strategies: Drie Fonteinen On a site along the canal in Beersel near Brussels, the Drie Fonteinen brewery consists of a an existing cask hall that will be expanded with a new brewery and connected craft and production programs.

Schuman Square 2 Schuman Square 2. Schuman Square 2 In order to answer an updated brief, with more structural constraints and a lower budget, the new project follows the main lines of the previous winning proposal of Masterplan SANI This international design competition addressed the conversion of the former Sani Barracks site in Bologna into a mix of public and private open spaces and primarily residential buildings.

Nantes ARC The project consists of three towers on a plinth. Learning and Innovation Center The ambition of the project is no less than to establish a central pivot, a public hotspot for both university campuses, providing space for informal meetings as well as for studious concentration.

Museum of fine arts Tournai The competition was organized in order to extend and renovate the existing Museum of Fine Arts in Tournai and to propose a masterplan how to integrate the museum more in its surroundings.

Oude Dokken School The requested program for the building, being a combination of a primary school, an after school care centre, a nursery and sports facilities for the school and its neighbourhood is diverse, extensive, demands a great deal of outside space and is rather big for the rather small site.

GZA Residential Care Center This care campus for the elderly is situated within the ancient walls of a former convent. Paris-Saclay le futur en chantier s Paris-Saclay, le futur en chantier s.

Paris-Saclay le futur en chantier s To rethink the traditional tools of urban representation: Waterfront Promenade Vlora.

ONE ROOF As immaterial as the outside skin is intended to be, as tectonic is the roof that slopes down from this horizontal perimeter to the patio and upwards to the castle.

Faculty of Economics There appears to be one constant about academic buildings; they require extensions, often at the cost of their own initial qualities.

Z33 In , a competition was organized for the expansion of the Z33 museum in Hasselt. Silo building Silo building. Province Headquarters Province Headquarters.

Airport Extension Extension Airport. Airport Extension Our proposal for a new terminal at the Airport of Geneva consists of a long, floating, transparent volume that frees the ground level as much as possible and is supported on both sides by a set of massive, vertical volumes.

Square Schuman One Schuman square. Paris-Saclay This master-planning project for the Saclay plateau is a real challenge in terms of scale.

Their roofs have photovoltaic panels that provide electricity for the lighting of the area. Warehouse Macdonald Warehouse Macdonald. Swiss-Re Headquarters The prominent lakeside condition for the Swiss Re headquarters forms an exceptional context for generating a daring architectural concept.

Rue de la Loi Rue de la Loi. Police Station Police Station. Police Station The design of the new police headquarters in Kortrijk features a simple vertical composition of two triangular volumes with a large open space between them.

Place Rogier Place Rogier. Baltic Pearl Baltic Pearl. Private house Private house. Private house For this private villa, XDGA looks to the often farcical and contradictory nature of the family house.

EPFL Learning Center In order to enrich and intensify the urban figure of the EPFL university campus as well as to install a visual relation with the splendid surroundings, the best location for the Learning Centre is at the very core of the existing campus; on the Esplanade and directly grafted on the main circulation axes at various levels of the existing campus buildings.

Les Halles Les Halles. Les Halles The current configuration of Les Halles in Paris suffers from an urban configuration bereft of interaction between the ground level park and the gargantuan basement on which it almost inadvertently stands.

Kitchen Tower Kitchen Tower. Kitchen Tower The commission for the Hotel school campus in Anderlecht features masterplanning, renovation and addition.

Sint-Lucas In its initial form, the project for the Hogeschool St Lucas in Gent consisted of an overall masterplan for the campus, the renovation of several existing buildings and their associated outdoor spaces and the design of two new buildings.

Extension of Monaco Extension of Monaco. College of Europe College of Europe. College of Europe The key issue here is how to insert new architecture in a loaded historical surrounding.

Les trois principales surviennent: Lille rejoint ainsi le Saint-Empire romain germanique et partage le destin des Pays-Bas pendant plus de ans.

Puis par le retour de la guerre. En , Gustave Delory est le premier maire socialiste de France. Elle dure jusqu'au 20 octobre [ 63 ].

La prise de la poche de Lille le 31 mai livre la ville aux Allemands. On peut citer ainsi:. Ensuite, celui de la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

Au total, les principales vagues d'immigration sont relativement anciennes. Lille est aussi une ville jeune: Lille est un haut lieu du catholicisme depuis les origines de la ville.

Finalement, Lille serait aujourd'hui la principale zone d'implantation du protestantisme dans le Nord [ ]. Ils organisent des conventions annuellement.

A Note From Brian: I welcome comments on this article, particularly from Socialists, educators, kids and parents. I tried to keep the language as simple as I could, but I suspect that the reading level may still be somewhat too advanced for the average 5th grader, which is the primary intended audience.

Ideas or suggestions for improvement will be much appreciated, as will ideas for future articles in the series. There are only two articles in the series so far, but more to come.

Thank you for this. Kids take to it so naturally. Like in Britain, where when you become old, you die when you get sick or hurt, because we need to save those resources for the young people.

We do not live in a utopian society, LOL. Resources are not distributed equally! This is a wonderful definition.

I am from the UK but the socialist feeling described reflects what many of us are feeling over here too. Thank you so much. I will be sharing with my grandsons.

Thank you for this! An interesting and informative read for many ages. I will definitely use it when discussing socialism with my class of 11 year olds tomorrow!

I thought this was a great article explaining socialism. Thanks for putting it together. Thanks so much for taking the time to read the essay, and for your comment.

I love the suggestion as well. Will give a shot at writing something about common objections, controversies and criticisms at some point.

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So, what is Socialism?

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